Aquaculture

Aquaculture

The cultivation of aquatic organisms. Some of the most common organisms that are cultivated are salmon, trout, oysters, and clams.

Back Round

Aqua Culture has been present for thousands of year. For most of history it has taken place in small ponds located along the coast. One example of this is in Hawaii where they cultivated mullet. Only in the last 100 years have commercially viable fish farms become feasible.

Types of Fish Farms

  • Open net cages are a type of aquaculture where they hold the fish in a type of net or cage. These nets and cages use the surrounding ecosystem to clean the water. The only responsibility that these farms have is to feed the fish and make sure no escape.
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  • Hatcheries these are breeding grounds for fish. the fish are captured bred and then released. Then the fish eggs are protected and when they hatch they are kept in the farm. these fish are fed and raised to a certain age and then released into the wild to increase wild numbers.
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  • Complete systems are systems built out of the water and are completely man made. They are fish ponds that depend on humans entirely for life. The water has to be filtered and cleaned, the fish have to be fed, and the fish have to be monitored completely. This is the least environmentally harmful form of aquaculture but it is very expensive in practice.
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Wild stocks

Populations of fish that exist naturally, without any human intervention.

Fish Runs

Fish runs are mass migrations of fish through one specific area or stream. This is exemplified by salmon, when they migrate in large numbers up the streams that they were hatched in, so that they can reproduce.

Anadromous

Fish that are born in fresh water, migrate to salt water, then migrate back to freshwater to reproduce.

Sea Lice

Sea lice are small parasitic invertebrates that feed on fish. Present harm to young fish that by exposing them to disease, and removing precious nutrients from them.
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References

"Department of Environmental Conservation." Walleye Take Process. New York State. 5 Apr. 2008 <http://www.dec.ny.gov/outdoor/21666.html>.

Parras, George. "Ocean Governance and Sustainibility." Disaster Pages. 30 Oct. 2003. 5 Apr. 2008 <http://www.drgeorgepc.com/OceanGovernance.html>.

"NOAA Aquaculture Page." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. US Department of Commerce. 16 Apr. 2008 <http://aquaculture.noaa.gov/>.

Further Reading

Department of Environmental Conservations Aquaculture page
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's aquacultures page

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